Tag Archives: Ubuntu 12.04

Script for adding multiple Vagrant boxes

I’ve been using Vagrant for a while now to test new configurations with simple virtual machines. Usually it’s just a single VM that I’m using but now I wanted to do some tests on more than one machine at the same time.

So I was looking for a way to easily create multiple identical virtual machines with Vagrant but couldn’t find a good solution so I made this small script to do it for me. If you know a better way, could you leave a comment and then we can both laugh at this script. I have also included a guide for controlling these new VMs with Fabric.

The script copies a packaged vagrant box as many times as you define and adds them to vagrant. Then adds the new virtual boxes to the Vagrantfile config. These new vagrant machines have hostonly static IP network setting but you can change it to bridged in the script if you want IPs from DHCP. The hostonly means that the machines can only be accessed from the host machine that’s running vagrant.

If you want to use multiple vagrant boxes without the script, here are the steps:
Create a single Vagrant box. Guide
Package it. Guide
Copy the package.box file. You need a copy for each virtual box. Guide ๐Ÿ˜‰
Add the new box copies to vagrant. Guide
Add new config to Vagrantfile for each new box. Guide
Start the boxes with ‘vagrant up’

And here’s the guide for using my script:
Read more of this post

Setting up a Github project

So I felt like setting up Github repository for awaseroot.ย Git is a version control system and with Github you can share your git project/repository online. We use Github as a place to share all our awaseroot material. There’s many good tutorials available (for example: http://help.github.com/win-set-up-git/) but here’s the steps I took one by one. Replace awaseroot with whatever you want.

Ubuntu 12.04
Git version 1.7.9.5

The goal is to publish this:

Like this: Read more of this post

Ubuntu Release Upgrade – Fully automatic non-interactive upgrade

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS has been released and it’s time to upgrade! The do-release-upgrade is the recommended way and don’t worry! I will use it. The problem is this: do-release-upgrade asks a lot of questions during the install but I have to upgrade multiple machines and I don’t feel like answering those same questions on each machine. So how to automate this?
EASY!

There’s a way to answer those questions in advance and in a single command. You can pipe some of the answers with echo and then use DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractice for the rest of them. No preseeding needed at all. With this command you can automate a release upgrade completely.

Remember to take backups in case something goes wrong. Read more of this post

Fabric tutorial 3 – Settings and roles

In this tutorial I’m going to concentrate on various different settings you can use in your fabfile.
These settings can be added to your environmental variables, as decorators or inside the tasks. With roles
we can define which machines are for example servers and which are workstations.

I hope you’ve also read previous tutorials 1 & 2:
https://awaseroot.wordpress.com/2012/04/23/fabric-tutorial-1-take-command-of-your-network/
https://awaseroot.wordpress.com/2012/04/25/fabric-tutorial-2-file-transfer-error-handling/

Environmental variables

Your default settings should be in the environmental variables right in the beginning of your fabfile.
These are the settings that are used in all of your tasks unless you define it otherwise. These
are the settings that we’ll modify in our tasks later. We have used these in the previous tutorials.

fabfile.py

env.hosts=["simo@10.10.10.10","webserver.local"]
env.user="hng"
env.password="password"
env.parallel=True
env.skip_bad_hosts=True
env.timeout=1
env.warn_only=True

Read more of this post

Fabric tutorial 2 – File transfer & error handling

On the first turorial we learned to run commands on remote hosts with Fabric. Now we move on to
transfering files. Transfering new configuration files is usually quite important part of system administration.
Also retrieving log files from the remote machines might be useful.

Sending files

Let’s assume we’ve made a new ssh_config file with important changes and we want to send it to our
remote hosts. Here’s a task for sending files.

def file_send(localpath,remotepath):
    put(localpath,remotepath,use_sudo=True)

Run it with:
fab file_send:path/to/edited/ssh_config,/etc/ssh/ssh_config
or if the modified ssh_config is in the directory where you’re running Fabric:
fab file_send:ssh_config,/etc/ssh/ssh_config

If we’re sending the file to a location that doesn’t need sudo eg. /tmp/, we don’t need the use_sudo=True.

Another example: Read more of this post

Fabric tutorial 1 – Take command of your network

This is a guide for installing and using Fabric on Ubuntu.
Tested versions:
Ubuntu 11.10
Fabric 1.4.1

Fabric is a Python tool and a library for combining Python with SSH.
The tool can be used to execute Python functions from the command line. It’s also
possible to execute shell commands over SSH with Fabric and by combining the Python functions
with the SSH, it’s possible to automate system administration tasks. (fabfile.org)

Why Fabric?
You can use Fabric as a tool for centralized configuration management. You can run administrative tasks
on all of your machines simultaneously. Fabric is fast and easy to install and start using since there’s
no configuration needed, just install and start adding tasks to your fabfile.

Fabric doesn’t require anything else on the remote systems but a working SSH server. So if you
can control a device with SSH, you can also control it with Fabric. This is why Fabric is such
an easy and nice tool to add to your sysadmin tools. If you prefer Ruby over Python, take a look at a
similiar tool called Capistrano.

In these tutorials I will go through the installation and all the basics you need to start using
Fabric efficietly. Read more of this post